ACT Team :: Projects :: MICROGRID -- Optimization of renewable electricity generation systems connected in a microgrid
|MICROGRID -- Optimization of renewable electricity generation systems connected in a microgrid
||MICROGRID -- Optimization of renewable electricity generation systems connected in a microgrid
||The ever increasing electrical energy demands, limited fossil and nuclear fuel reserves, climate change, the national desire for energy independence and diversification of energy sources, thrust in the first plan distributed production of electric power from renewable sources as a key element in achieving sustainable development. Over ninety percent of the electricity generated in developed countries is consumed in homes, buildings, and industry. Greater attention must therefore be paid to end-use sectors if the promised benefits of smart grids - reduction of electricity consumption/losses, integration of renewable generation and storage, reduced use of fossil fuels, and improved grid reliability – are to be achieved.
The main problem in the usage of renewable electrical energy sources (REES) is their intermittency, which leads to problems in regulation of the power system. This problem exists both on a local production/storage/consumption level and on the power system level and becomes more pronounced with the increasing contribution of REES in the total energy production. A natural solution is to derive a coordinated and dynamic planning strategy for production/storage/consumption of electric power. With a local information- and power-connection of REES, energy storage facilities, and consumers in a system – a microgrid – one can control resulting energy flows while considering techno-economical criteria and the local energy yield forecast. Solution of such problems – via optimization for microgrid design and control – will significantly improve the integration of REES on both the local and the utility grid level.
This program includes 4 research teams with complementary competences from appropriate research fields: University of Zagreb Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing (FER), University of Zagreb Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FSB), Meteorological and Hydrological Institute of Croatia (DHMZ) and Končar – Electrical Engineering Institute (KIET).
FER task is the design of the control system for the microgrid: power flow regulation for microgrid components (cooperation with KIET/FSB), voltage-current quality control on the microgrid energy link, optimization of power flows from/to storage units that considers weather forecast (DHMZ), consumption profiles (cooperation with FSB), state of individual REES and storage units, as well as utility grid conditions. To enable the optimization, FER will develop the information-communication (IC) interface for the microgrid connection with (a) grid utility system, and (b) weather forecast service. The connection to the grid utility system will be developed with a platform for „virtual negotiations“ and assessment of the optimal power production and price profiles that is crucial for large deployment of microgrids and thus REES in the utility grid. The IC interface for the weather forecast service will be widely applicable not only for microgrids but also for energy production/consumption optimizations in larger REES installations and energy services in buildings.
The developed control concepts and IC infrastructure will be validated experimentally in the microgrid established in Laboratory for Renewable Energy Sources at FER (LARES).
FSB is responsible for the perennial planning and optimization of microgrid components. Various requirements will be taken into account during optimization: local loads present, the level of microgrid autonomy from the utility grid, technical characteristics of each component, cost of components, life expectancy, available space, impact on the environment. The design will take into account derived control and optimization algorithms for microgrid operation done by FER The optimization will reside on the past meteorological data for the specified location prepared by DHMZ and its results will be validated in the microgrid operation conditions in LARES. Procedures for selecting, dimensioning and placing of wind and solar REES for location-specific microgrids in urban environments will be assessed in cooperation with KIET and with weather forecast support by DHMZ. FSB and FER will also develop estimation and low-level control strategies for several types of electrical energy storages in their laboratory facilities: batteries, ultracapacitors (FSB) and hydrogen storage with electrolyser and fuel cells (FER).
||University of Zagreb Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Končar -- Electrical Engineering Institute, Croatian Hydrological and Meteorological Service